Scofield Reference Notes 1917

1 Thess.5:23  “And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

“whole spirit, and soul, and body”

Man a trinity. That the human soul and spirit are not identical is proved by the facts that they are divisible. Hebrews 4:12 and that soul and spirit are sharply distinguished in the burial and resurrection of the body. It is sown a natural body (soma psuchikon= “soul- body”), it is raised a spiritual body (soma pneumatikon) 1 Corinthians 15:44 . To assert, therefore, that there is no difference between soul and spirit is to assert that there is no difference between the mortal body and the resurrection body. In Scripture use, the distinction between spirit and soul may be traced. Briefly, that distinction is that the spirit is that part of man which “knows” 1 Corinthians 2:11, his mind; the soul is the seat of the affections, desires, and so of the emotions, and of the active will, the self. “My soul is exceeding sorrowful” Matthew 26:38, see also ; Matthew 11:29 ; John 12:27 . The word transliterated “soul” in the O.T. (nephesh) is the exact equivalent of the N.T. word for soul ( (Greek – eujyucevw ), and the use of “soul” in the O).T. is identical with the use of that word in the N.T. (see, e.g.) ; Deuteronomy 6:5 ; 14:26 ; 1 Samuel 18:1 ; 1 Samuel 20:4 1 Samuel 20:17 ; Job 7:11 Job 7:15 ; 14:22 ; Psalms 42:6 ; 84:2 . The N.T. word for spirit (pneuma) like the O.T. (ruach), is trans. “air”, “breath”, “wind,” but predominantly “spirit,” whether of God (e.g.) ; Genesis 1:2 ; Matthew 3:16 or of man ; Genesis 41:8 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 . Because man is “spirit” he is capable of God-consciousness, and of communication with God ; Job 32:8 ; Psalms 18:28 ; Proverbs 20:27 because he is “soul” he has self- consciousness ; Psalms 13:2 ; Psalms 42:5 Psalms 42:6 Psalms 42:11 because he is “body” he has, through his senses, world consciousness.